Special Articles / Dr. Kannekanti Parameshwar, Dr. M. Purvachar / Social Discrimination Against Persons with Disabilities and Their Rehabilitation in Karnataka
2.1: Statement Of The Problem: The Statement Of The Problem Taken Up Is “A STUDY OF SOCIAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES AND THEIR REHABILITATION IN KARNATAKA.”
2.2: Need Of The Problem Study: It is likely to study the impact of the problem by shedding some light on the disabled as an individual in his environment, member of own family, member of peer group and member of community in the society and satisfaction of the rehabilitation services rendered by various organizations and influence on his attitude change and discriminated by the society at large. Therefore, to boost their abilities, the problem identification and solving technique is to be adopted. An in-depth study is required to put forth the identified social problem (i.e. social discrimination of disabled) is to be eradicated and bring them to mainstream. Therefore, the following factors are also to be studied.
In our day to day life we see the disabled people sporadically in public places. This phenomenon is not apparent in our country but it is apparent all over the world. The moment we see them something we feel sympathetic towards them. We will try to help them. Some times we may observe that they are independent in their activities of daily living. We could seen while a totally blind person crossing the road without the help of others. We could come across while two totally hearing impaired persons talking in sign language. We could seen a loco-motor disabled walking with limps or with the help of crutches, tricycles, etc. We could also seen a laughing dependent boy/girl with different posture. We could also seen the above categories of people form into their own minority group; isolate/deviate, waiting for societies help as a weaker section. Why they are behaving like that? Why they are different in their figure and posture? Why they are different in their attitude? Why they become disabled? How impairments taken place? How they are discriminated by society? Why they are not coming to the mainstream? What are the areas they are discriminated? How to rehabilitate them and bring them to mainstream? These are the questions ringing in ours mind. In addition to these, we should know that what are the rehabilitation services and facilities available to them. What are the problems implied in the implementation of these programs. Why these policies are not reaching at their door steps? Why these people are differentiated in implementation of these policies which exclusively formulated for them? Ultimately, we should also identify the factors which affect the overall development and attitudinal changes in disabled and abled. Being disabled, they are lagging behind development. Hence, it would like to know the factors, what influence on disabled directly or indirectly to eradicate the social discrimination, which is acting as a barrier to lead happy life. This study emphasizes how to reach the rehabilitation services at their doorsteps without discrimination.
To find the answers to the above questions, the present study would like to know the impact of family environment, living community and places at education, working environment, and social policies as a whole definitely shows some impact on disabled persons in their activities of daily living. They are somewhere over discriminated by treating ‘dis-abled’. This social practice discourages the interest of the disabled. Many places, disabled persons denigrated and kept aside or isolated or deviated from the mainstream. They need support to become independent and able individuals.
Most researchers in social science are to develop abilities and reduce disabilities. These physical and sensory abilities create individual differences and also people with differential abilities. The development of social personality, and the direction and intensity of social, moral and ethical behavior of differentially able are considered basically the function of disability and the attitude constitutes the core of social behaviour.
This research study is designed not only to understand the social discrimination and availability of rehabilitation services to the disabled people in Karnataka in true perspective but also to manage the disability sector empirically, realistically and scientifically. The better way to tackle this is (i) to identify the negative attitudes and causes of social discrimination, (ii) to assess these negative attitudes with intensity, (iii) to erase these negative one by affirmative ones. Further, the research problem accepted is a significant one in India not only because this deals with a minority class but also tries to :
2.3: Objectives Of The Study: This study intends to examine the factors associated with the different types of disabilities, different degrees of discrimination, different areas of discrimination and rehabilitation among the disabled persons. The study is quantitative, descriptive, elaborative, and exploratory in nature as a whole it is a scientific one. An attempt has been made to explore the interplay of factors associated with discrimination. This study broadly seeks to examine the influence of social discrimination against PWD in their life and under the umbrella of society, institutions and social policies with respect to Disability Rehabilitation in Karnataka. The following are the objectives of the study:-
The term hypothesis can be defined as a proposition or tentative solutions or answers or generalizations which are yet to be tested2. Hypothesis is a proposition that can then be tested to determine its validity3.
For the present study specific hypothesis has been adopted to test the data. However, the concepts of the study reflect that there are some common elements in all disabilities regard less of their nature and extent. Functional limitations are some times social limitations that result from disease and disability. Disability may create greater problems of adaptation for disabled cases in comparison to non disabled cases such as women, color, creed, of some individuals may adopt better than others even if the nature and degree of handicap is same. The following research hypothesis will be kept in view for examining the data.
These hypotheses will be tested in one or the other statistical procedure. If in case it is not possible to go through these hypotheses the reformulation of hypotheses will take place.
2.5: Target Group: The PWD will form the target group of this study. The word “Persons with Disabilities” includes visual impaired, hearing impaired, loco motor disabled (includes cured leprosy) and mentally retarded.
2.6: Boundaries Of The Study: This study has boundaries to following areas:
2.8: Development Of Research Dimensions: The study of literature relating to a particular research is a comprehensive work involving two processes. The first is the picking up of related studies from different sources and the second is the preparation of a brief statement of the main features of these studies, which is otherwise known as summary of the studies. In the present research study, the researcher after review of above related literature and keeping in view of the research title tried to develop five dimensions:
2.8.1: Socio-Demographic Specific: This dimension consists of statements pertaining to age, education, marital status, income, family, peer group, community and society as a whole. These statements reveal the socio-demographic situation of the disabled. Age is an independent variable which states the age of the respondents. Income is also reveals the information about economic situation and relates the poverty. How poverty is associated with the disability and disability associated with discrimination are also studied. Further, family members, information about peer group, information about community and how disabled discriminated in the society is also important variables to be considered in this specific.
2.8.2: Disability Specific: This dimension states that what are the disabilities and how they can be categorized and their intensity with reference to disabled. It also infers, what are the reasons of the disability and its effects on disabled? How disfigurement leads to discrimination of disabled in the society are also to be studied. With reference to the disability how disabled facing problems like, handicaps in the society are to be studied in this dimension. Ultimately, how a disabled shows his abilities and how he faces disabilities while performing certain function. Ability is a means by which an individual performs certain functions and activities. Through physical/sensory or motor/gross abilities, human being activates and achieves excellence in different spheres.
2.8.3: Discrimination Specific: This dimension clarifies the dependent/independent variables of discrimination such as, bias, prejudice and discrimination, segregation and exploitation of the disabled will be focused in the statements.
2.8.4: Areas Of Discrimination Specific: In this dimension the major areas where the disabled are discriminated will be focused in the shape of statements. Such as, society, institution and self are the major areas covered for the study.
126.96.36.199: Society Level: Society covers the family, peer group, community as a whole. Therefore, the variables of these are extracted through the dependent variables in the statements for the study. How family members isolate, under estimate the abilities of the disabled and how they discriminate are covered. With reference to peer group, how they isolate, frolic and discriminated the disabled are covered. Ultimately, with reference to community, how community isolates the disabled, discriminated him also framed the statements.
188.8.131.52: Institutional Level: In this dimension the investigator would like to know the Institutional Discrimination and the areas where the disabled are discriminated, particularly, place of education, place of work and administration, place of rehabilitation for the present study by means of statements for the subjects.
184.108.40.206.1: Discrimination In Place Of Education: The disabled are also facing adjustment problems with the classmates by means of isolation, non-cooperation and lagging behind in education, neglect, avoidance, etc are to be studied.
220.127.116.11.2 : Discrimination In Place Of Work: Everyone has to perform activities. Each individual is to do a work- physical or mental- leading to livelihood or economic gains. Some people do work to fulfill social obligation or as a hobby. No body can live without work and everybody wants work. But, whether that work pays in economic terms or not is actually giving the actual meaning to work. A work is one that draws earnings and money in monetary terms. How a PWD discriminated by his colleagues at work is to be studied.
18.104.22.168.3 : Discrimination By Administration: This dimension frames the statements with regard to the administrative policies frames against the disabled. How an administration implement polices relating to disabled and what are the facilities they provide to the disabled are to be studied. And what type of attitude an employer has towards the abilities of PWD? Healthy attitude toward abilities of a PWD and vice – versa leads a decent life of PWD.
22.214.171.124.4 : Place Of Rehabilitation: The place of rehabilitation is also not spared by the discrimination. There are many evidences on discrimination in rehabilitation place.
2.8.5: Self-discrimination: Self-discrimination/Self-devaluation is also an important variable to be studied which is to be understood how far a disabled adjusted with the society and with his disability is to be studied in this dimension.
2.8.6: Rehabilitation Specific: This dimension infers what are the schemes and facilities available in the state of Karnataka for disabled are the statements for the subjects. Whether rehabilitation professionals discriminate the disabled or not is also a question of study. While, how far the disabled satisfied with the services available to them in the state are reflected in the form of statements.
2.9: Gaps In Research Of Social Discrimination Against PWD: The study of relevant research literature and reference material relating to this particular research study not only gives an insight to the researcher about the quantum of work done in the field but also enables to perceive the gaps and lapses of the researches concern. Accordingly, the study of related literature of the present investigation reveals the following gaps in research in the field of disability, discrimination and rehabilitation research and the discipline of Sociology, Social Work and Psychology and Social Psychology with specific reference to the PWD:
2.10:The Research Design: The design of a research is generally prepared taking into consideration of the nature and type of research. The present study being an experimental one and focuses upon in two phases i.e., firstly, the concepts of disability, discrimination and rehabilitation, social discrimination against disabled and secondly, the rehabilitation of disabled in Karnataka; the discrimination analysis and its influence over the persons with disabilities [PWD]. For the purpose of social discrimination and rehabilitation procedure are interactive words have been located while going through the research references and classified into five dimensions as mentioned above in development of research design.
The stages of design include:-
2.11: Variables Of The Research: A variable is an empirical property that takes two or more values. In other words, if a property can change in value or kind, it can be regarded as variable6. “A variable is the term scientists apply to something that they think influences (or is influenced by something else.”7 “The independent variable is the variable that cases an effect. The dependent variable is the variable that is affected.”8 “A variable is the term scientists apply to something that they think influences (or is influenced) by something else.”9
The dependent/independent variables of the study related are as under:
2.12: Study Universe: “The aggregate of all cases that conform to some designated set of specifications is called the universe.” “According to the estimates of the W.H.O. 10% of the population (world) has one or more physical or mental disabilities. The present study is confined to Bangalore rural and urban Districts. Population of these two districts is 65,23,110 and 18,77,416 respectively. The total is 84,00,526. As per the Census of India 2001 (The First report on Disability) there were 9,40,643 disabled persons in Karnataka as against 2,19,06,769 disabled persons in India. In Karnataka the disabled population constitutes only 4.29% of the total disabled population of India. While, the total population of Bangalore rural and urban districts comprise 1,33,844 which occupies (app. 14.2%) out of total disabled population of Karnataka. Keeping this big number in view it is intended to have 400 samples to the present study10.
2.13: Sample Of The Study: This part contains the details relating to population for the study, characteristics of disabled population, selection of samples and different centers as source to collect data for the measurement of variables of this study.
2.13.1: Definition of Sample: Sukhatme (1953) defined sampling as a method of selecting a fraction of the population in a way that the selected sample represents the population. Sample can be classified into probability and non-probability sample11.
2.13.2: Population for the Study: The most significant decision preceding the collection of data pertains to demarcate the population and selecting a sample that should represent the population as truly as possible. Hence one needs to examine precisely the nature of population in terms of its size, geographical expansion and the characteristics which are vital to the phenomenon. In a research study, concept of population does not essentially refer to the number of people living in geographical region. Instead, by population we mean an aggregate of events, ideas, objects and observations that could possibly exist or occur within a vortex of space and time. In the present study, the population of disabled people refers to the number of adults above the age of 18 years seeking rehabilitation services in the rehabilitation centers situated in Bangalore.
2.13.3: Characteristics of the Disabled Population:
2.13.4: Method of Selection of Samples: PWD are the only samples from the selected Rehabilitation Centers (Government, NGO’s, etc). Also, employees from the central and state government and NGO are without repetition of the samples for the study. The respondents will be selected by Categorized Accidental Sampling method from four categories of disabled i.e., Loco-motor Disabled, Visually Impaired, Hearing Impaired and Mentally Retarded and from different centers for the study.
For the present study the Non-Probability Categorized Accidental Sampling has been selected for the study for the following two purposes12:
2.13.5: Sampling of Subjects for the Research: The subjects of this study is PWD all over the Karnataka, but the rehabilitation centers situated in Bangalore city and its vicinity are rendering services to all the PWD who visits the centre for rehabilitation from all over Karnataka. Hence, the samples collected from these centers represent all the subjects of the state of Karnataka.
2.13.6: Characteristics of the Sample
2.13.7: Size of the Sample: PWD only the samples from the selected rehabilitation centers without repetition of the samples for the study. Keeping in view of the characteristics of the samples the respondents will be selected by Accidental Sampling method from four categories of disabled including male and female. They are Loco-motor Disabled, Visually Impaired, Hearing Impaired and Mentally Retarded the distribution of PWD according to rehabilitation and service coverage area in Karnataka are mentioned in the below tables and figures.
2.14 : Tools Of Data Collection: The data will be collected by primary and secondary sources. The primary sources include interview schedules to each of the respondent in the study besides participant observation. The books, journals, websites and other literature would be relied upon for secondary sources. The research problem called for the administration of a number of tools to measure different variables involved in it. According to Bogardus, “Schedule is a form of abbreviated questions which the interviewer keeps with himself and fills out as he proceeds with his inquiry13”. According to Good and Hatt say, “Schedule is the name usually applied to a set of questions which are asked and filled by an interviewer in a face to face situation with another person14”. Considering the availability, applicability and usability of the tools, the investigator of the present study have chosen interview schedule as a valid and reliable tool in English language under accidental method for this research study.
2.15 : Method Of Data Collection:
2.16 : Research Area Of The Study: The topic of the study demands adequate representation of disabled persons. Since the idea was to study the effect of discrimination against PWD and their rehabilitation in Karnataka. Hence the study will be carried out in the state of Karnataka especially the rehabilitation centers established by Government and non-Government organizations working for the welfare of disabled in Bangalore. The respondents will be selected from the above said organizations for the study. The disabled people visit the rehabilitation centers established in Bangalore are selected as respondents for the study who come from all over the Karnataka to get the rehabilitation services. Therefore the research area restricted to the centers established by Government of India (VRC), Government of Karnataka (DWD, Spl Employment Exchange for PH) and other N.G.Os (APD, NAB, CISHI, AMC, Sumanahalli Leprosy center, and Mobility India) in Bangalore.
2.17 : Statistical Procedure: Soon after collecting the data, the interview schedules will be edited and scrutinized. All the schedules are thoroughly checked to see whether they are properly filled in or not. Later, the code-book is prepared and with the help of it, the verbal responses are transformed into numerical on the master-sheet. With the help of this master sheet all the variable codes are entered into computer to get frequency tables, cross-tables and graphs are prepared. All these tables will be analyzed and interpreted.
2.18 : Hypothesis Testing: To test the hypotheses, required statistical tests are conducted. A descriptive and comparative method (amongst four categories of disabled) is followed in data analysis and content analysis with reference to secondary data will be analyzed in the particular chapter in analysis sections. The following statistical procedures are adopted at the time of data analysis:
a) The raw scores collected from the sample 400 PWD are tabulated.
b) Then their cumulative frequency distribution tables are prepared.
c) Cumulative Frequency Distribution of Cross-tables is prepared.
d) The data collected of this study is analyzed chapter-wise.
e) ‘Chi-square ( 2) test for ‘goodness-of-fit’ is applied to check the relativity of variables of hypothesis of the required statement.
f) Its frequency distribution tables and bar graphs are also used/developed in case of statements wherein necessary;
Present study is one of the diversified studies in the field of Sociology and the Rehabilitation is a method and principle of field of Social Work. This effort would help to have some important intuitions in the field of the problems of disabled.
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