Special Articles / T. Thangadurai, A. Praveenbabu / Scientific Writing and Publishing in Social Work
Adolescence is a stressful developmental period filled with major changes in physical maturity and sexuality, cognitive processes, emotional feelings, and relationships with others. The emotional adjustment among the adolescents may be caused by environmental factors, medical factors, genetics, brain chemistry, substance abuse, or a combination of these. These are major threats to the adolescents because they are the pillars of the world. This might be neglected and ignored but it might affect the adolescents even when they grow old. Most of the adolescents are having emotional adjustment problems but there is lack of awareness about the disorder and the therapies. So, the researcher made an attempt to find out the emotional adjustments among the adolescents of Gandhi Nagar village in Perambalur.
The aim and objectives of the study is to assess the level of emotional adjustment among the school students (9th to 12th standard) and to study the sociodemographic details of respondents. The researcher has used descriptive research design for the study. The researcher has adopted census method for data collection and the population is 60. The major finding of the study revealed that the adolescents have high level of emotional adjustment.
Key words: Adolescents, Emotional adjustment, adolescents
Adolescence is a transition period between childhood and adulthood. It is a stressful developmental period filled with major changes in physical maturity and sexuality, cognitive processes (ways of thinking and thought content), emotional feelings, and relationships with others.Addressing the healthcare needs of this age group requires not only addressing identified health concerns, but also considering the complicated interactions of developmental changes on healthcare needs, the effectiveness of treatment, health education, and health promotion. As adolescents begin to take responsibility for their own health, education and promotion of preventive healthcare is very important. Teaching preventive healthcare (about topics such as pregnancy prevention, sexually transmitted diseases, the effects of smoking, the need for immunizations, and substance use) and providing health education regarding specific healthcare needs to adolescents requires special consideration and effort to ensure understanding and encourage compliance.
What is Adolescence ?
The term adolescence is commonly used to describe the transition stage between childhood and adulthood. Adolescence is also equated to both the terms “teenage years” and “puberty.” However, adolescence is not exclusive to either of these terms. Puberty refers to the hormonal changes that occur in early youth; and the period of adolescence can extend well beyond the teenage years. In fact, there is no one scientific definition of adolescence or set age boundary. There are key development changes that nearly all adolescents experience during their transition from childhood to adulthood.
Adolescence is the period of psychological and social transition between childhood and adulthood. This transition involves biological (i.e. pubertal) and psychological changes. Adolescence is also a cultural and social phenomenon; therefore, its endpoints are not necessarily tied to physical milestones. The word derives from the Latin verb adore meaning “to grow up.” Adolescence is generally considered to begin somewhere between ages 12 and 14, and end at 19 or 20, with the period in between defined by dramatic changes in the body, developments in a person’s psychology, and transitions through one’s academic career.
Define of Adolescence
Adolescence: From the point of view of biological development, a span of time starting with puberty and concluding with maturity. Chronologically, this is usually from about 12 or 13 to 18 or 19 years of age. Consequently, there are the informal terms teenage years and teenager. Some authorities suggest that adolescence ends for females at about the age of 21 and for males at about the age of 22.
Characteristics of Adolescent Thinking
There are four important characteristics that distinguish adolescent thinking from more mature thinking:
Emotional and Psychological Development
Bushmaster and Furman, (1987)also introduces adolescence as a period of significant transition into family and social roleexpectations, coupled with increases in the range and intimacy of social relationships(Bushmaster & Furman, 1987; Selman, 1980). The cognitive and social transitions of the adolescent period offer opportunities to explore new personal and social roles and to negotiatenew and different complex relationships. A key challenge of adolescence is the integration of new, complex and sometimes conflicting information about the self within the social context (Collins, 1990). It is not surprising that this developmental period is characterized by intense self-preoccupation (Elkind, 1967; Elkind, 1985) as adolescents attempt to understand, integrateand solidify their identity and their position in relationships with those around them.
Nikapota’s (1991) recent evidence indicates that emotional and behavioural disorders frequently led to poor school performance and to dropping-out of school. This wastes educational resources and seriously impairs the economic and social potential of such children.
Statement of the Problem:
This study looks at the emotional adjustment of adolescents. Children can have fears, fears of specific objects, discomfort and physical complaints or afraid of the dark etcetera. However, when children’s fears persist beyond the age where they are appropriate these fears can begin to interfere with their daily functioning. These emotional responses can also result in lower performance in studies and is hence the reason the researcher has selected the emotional related disorders among rural children for his study.
Scope of the Study:
Emotional adjustment may be caused by environmental factors, medical factors, genetics, brain chemistry, substance abuse, or a combination of these. This is a major threat to the child because they are the pillars of the world. This might be neglected and ignored but it might affect the children even when they grow old. Most of the adolescents are having emotional adjustment problems but there is lack of awareness about the disorder and the therapies. So, the researcher made an attempt to find out the facts and findings behind the problems faced by the children.
The aim of the study is to assess the level of emotional adjustment related to adolescent students of Gandhi Nagar village in Perambalur district.
Objectives of the Study
Based on the extensive review of related literature and personal discussion with the experts in the field the following hypotheses were postulated for their empirical validations.
These terms are difficult to define and even more difficult to understand completely. People have been attempting to understand this phenomenon for thousands of years, and will most likely debate for a thousand more. This section will present the various theories related to the acquisition of emotion.
The researcher has adopted a descriptive research design by conducting the study on emotional adjustment related among adolescents.
Universe of the Study
The universe of the study refers to the population where the researcher conducted the research. In this study, the researcher collected the data from the students of Gandhi Nagar village in Perambalur district and the total number of population in 9th to 12th standard was 60. The researcher collected the data from all respondents.
The researcher adopted a census method for data collection.
Selection of the Study Area
The researcher selected Gandhi Nagar village in Perambalur district, as the study area for the research.
Tools Used For Data Collection
The researcher used a questionnaire which had two parts. The 1st part of the questionnaire consisted of socio demographic details of the respondents. Then 2nd part of the questionnaire consisted of the rating scale:”psychometric properties of an emotional adjustment”.
In order to check the relevance of the questionnaire-standardized scale, it was pretested with 4 respondents. It was found that data with the scale was as intended as it related to objectives of the study. So it was used for data collection.
In this study, the term children refer to the students who are studying in 9th to 12th standard in Gandhi Nagar village in Perambalur district.
From table 1, it is inferred that the majority of the respondents (50.0%) are between 15 and 16 years of age. 26.7 per cent of the respondents are below 16 years and 23.3 per cent of them are above 14 years of age.
The majority of the respondents (45.0%) are male and 55.0 per cent of the respondents are female.
Little more than half of the respondents (25.%) are pursuing same and 25. per cent of the respondents are studying and 20.8 per cent of them are in a professional course.
The majority of the respondents (45.0%) are male and 55.0 per cent of the respondents are female.
It is inferred fromtable 1 that (41.7%) of first child, 25 percent of the respondents are below fourth child and 10.0%above them.
The above table shows that 36.7 percent of the respondents have one person sibling,
31 per cent of the respondents have 2 siblings, and 10 per cent of the respondents have 3 siblings.
The majority of the respondents (96.7%) are residing in urban areas and 3.3 per cent of them are from rural areas. The majority of the respondents (95%) are Hindus and 3.3 per cent come under Muslim religion and few per cent of them (1.7%) are from Christian religion.
From table 2, it is inferred that majority of the respondents (56.7%) are farmers and28.3 per cent of them are on a daily wage, 11.7 per cent of them are nil and 3.3per cent of them are in employee.
The majority of the respondents (40%) are farmer and36.7 per cent of them are in daily wage, 20 per cent of them are nil and 3.3per cent of them are in employee.
48.3 per cent of the respondent’s father’s education is sslc, 38.3 per cent of the respondents’ fathers’ education is illiterate, 11.7 per cent of the respondents’ fathers’ education is 11-12, and 1.7 per cent of the respondents are under graduation.
61.7 per cent of the respondent’s father’s education is sslc, 31.7 per cent of the respondents father’s education is illiterate, 5 per cent of the respondents father’s education is 11-12, and 1.7 per cent of the respondents are under graduation
The majority of the respondents (68.3%) income was upto Rs.3000 and 13.3per cent of the respondents earn Rs.3000 andRs.6000 and 18.3 per cent of them earn above Rs.6000.
The majority of the respondents (86.7%) live in nuclear families and 13.3 per cent of them are in joint families.
The majority of the respondents (43.3%) family sizeswere above 4 members and 40 per cent of them have said that their family size was 4 members. 13.3 per cent of them said that their family size was 3 members and3.3 per cent of them said that their family size was 2 members.
This table shows thathalf of the respondents (58%) said yes tobecome nervous due to an unbearable sound and 47.7 %did not become nervous due to unbearable sound.
This table shows that 86% of the respondents consider themselves more nervous than other people and 13.3 % do not consider themselves more nervous than other people.
This table shows that the vast majority(91%) of the respondents said yes toalways physically shivering and 8.3% said no to always physically shivering.
This table shows that over half of the respondents (71.7%) did not consider their heart beat to be above normal and 13.3% considered their heart beat to be above normal.
This table shows that overhalf of the respondents (86%) answered yes to having a digestive disorderand 13.3% no to having a digestive disorder.
This table shows that over half of the respondents (56%) answered yes to being nervous while flashing about the works to do and 43.3% answered no to becoming nervous while flashing about the works to do.
Suggestions for Children:
Suggestions to Medical Social Workers:
Suggestions to Parents
This study has said its main focus on was on emotional adjustment among adolescents.
The emotional adjustment among the adolescent is prevailing to a great extent. If this problem that exists is not noticed it may lead to serious problem. During this period the children have anxiety and they have physiological effects such as trouble sleeping, nausea and tension. During this period it is found that children suffer physical and psychological problems to an extent. The anxiety should be found and given psychological support or treatment.
The researcher found out the various psychological problems through this research. Certain suggestions were put forth in order to bringing down their emotional level and also it should be used for the better future.
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