This study assessed the relationship between ethical climate and job satisfaction which five stressors (family factors, economic factors, job difficulty, peers’ competition and organizational climate) with the social workers performance (Creativity and innovation, the ability in problem solving and decision making). Job satisfaction is directly proportional to work stress is an established factor. Without having 100% satisfaction at the working atmosphere especially if you are a social worker it becomes impossible to have an ethically neutral work atmosphere based on the social worker & work structure defined/designed by him/her.
Social workers are at high risk of job stress and since the design of the profession is such that job satisfaction is basic needed for the worker to execute her duties perfectly. Since most of the situations where social workers carry out their duties involve caring for others and sharing their stress to social acclimatising the subjects to normal lifestyles, them being satisfied with what they are doing becomes crucial. This empathetically makes the social worker prone to stress, since they would also have personal issues already lending them to some sort of physiological and psychological stress.
With many similar studies it is easy to understand that the organizational climate had the most influence on performance followed by the economic factors, then Job difficulty and finally peers’ competition. To reduce the negative outcomes of stress it was recommended to make fundamental improvements to the social work organizational climate and increase leaders support.This paper focuses and analyses the literature findings which involves ethical climate and job satisfaction for social workers.
Key words: Ethical climate, Job satisfaction, Social work
Definition and importance of ethical climate and job satisfaction for social workers:
At the beginning of the twentieth century social work practicum , job satisfaction recently became one of the most important contemporary issues in applied research, the factors that lead to stress, its’ consequences and the necessary strategies to deal with distress outcomes. It is existed in the life of every individual, within the family relations, at work or in any career, in any organization, all over the world.
Social work job profile specifically have several kinds of stress, will not be found in other sectors, they are working in a unique environment; it could vary from full of noise, pollution, and more so they are highly susceptible to infections. It is a job seeks patience, high mental and physical capabilities (Uguretal, 2007). Social Workers in their daily basis practices are exposed to life and death situations, workload, long working hours in different shifts and surroundings, competition, insufficient knowledge and information sharing with peers, organisation chief’s etc. The conflict between Social Workers and their managers could exaggerate the pace of stress and its outcomes, the conflict between being involved emotionally with their work subjects and their families and being neutral in their emotions and feelings. Kristine Siefert, SrinikaJayaratne and Wayne A. Chess,(1991): The findings of two consecutive surveys of job satisfaction and burnout in national samples of health care social workers are presented. Between 1979 and 1989, there were significant increases in the proportion of social workers employed in private versus public agencies, in quantitative workload, and in social workers’ perceptions of the challenges presented by their jobs. Role conflict and role ambiguity, lack of comfort, and dissatisfaction with financial rewards emerged as significant predictors of depersonalization and burnout. However, a significant increase in social workers’ feelings of personal accomplishment also occurred, and high challenge emerged as a significant predictor of sense of effectiveness. Gila M. Acker,(1998); The implications for the social work profession are discussed as well as the importance of social support systems at the work setting that will help social workers cope more effectively with stressful work situations.
In addition to the moral distress caused by ethics contradiction between Social Workers beliefs of what it is right and wrong and the organizations’ values and culture (Lazzarin et al., 2012). The outcomes of job stress exceeds productivity and quality of employees performance, its’ psychological influence inverts into a bad lifestyle habits like smoking, over eating, drinking alcohol and lead to serious chronic diseases like hypertension and heart diseases (Owolabi1 et al., 2012). And could lead in social work job to data errors, negligence in a way could be critical to the safety of social work subjects. So, It is significant to have more attention to Social Workers job stress, the main stressors and to develop the suitable strategies to manage its’ bad impacts.
Social workers join organizations with certain motives like security of income and job, better prospects in future, and satisfaction of social and psychological needs. Every person has different sets of needs at different times. It is the responsibility of management to recognize this basic fact and provide appropriate opportunities and environments to people at work to satisfy their needs.
Hoppock defined job satisfaction as any combination of psychological, physiological and environmental circumstances that cause a person truthfully to say I am satisfied with my job (Hoppock, 1935). According to this approach although job satisfaction is under the influence of many external factors, it remains something internal that has to do with the way how the employee feels. That is job satisfaction presents a set of factors that cause a feeling of satisfaction.
Vroom in his definition on job satisfaction focuses on the role of the employee in the workplace. Thus he defines job satisfaction as affective orientations on the part of individuals toward work roles which they are presently occupying (Vroom, 1964).
One of the most often cited definitions on job satisfaction is the one given by Spector according to who job satisfaction has to do with the way how people feel about their job and its various aspects. It has to do with the extent to which people like or dislike their job. That’s why job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction can appear in any given work situation.
Job satisfaction represents a combination of positive or negative feelings that workers have towards their work.Thus the most used term in modern work environment is Job Stress; this term solely contributes to the job satisfaction in any profession. This is not an alien concept and was first coined and used by Selye,The stress of life(1956).
Purpose of the Study:
The topic of ethical climate and related factors of job satisfaction at work is getting wider attention at this time for all workers especially for social workers. R. Baghaei(2011):Job satisfaction is the satisfaction one feels while doing the job. Job satisfaction is one of the important factors, which affect not only the efficiency of the labourers but also such job behaviour as absenteeism, accidents, etc. Job satisfaction is the result of Employee perception of how well the job provides those things that are viewed important. For the success of any organization, job satisfaction has vital importance.
The employees who are satisfied are the biggest assets to an organization where as the dissatisfied employees are the biggest liabilities. In fact, no organization can successfully achieve its goal and mission unless and until those who constitute the organization are satisfied in their jobs.
Dissatisfaction leads to frustration and frustration leads to aggression. It is believed that employees dissatisfied with their job may be militant in their attitude towards the management. Dissatisfaction is infectious and quickly spreads to other employees and is likely to affect the morale and working of other employees and image of organization. A dissatisfied social worker may seriously cause damage to the reputation and property of the organization and harm its organisation by making wrong decision making. Job satisfaction/dissatisfaction is the result of various factors which are related to the present job situations or ethical climate.
Objectives of the Study:
The study aims to obtain the following objectives:
Review of literature:
Person-environment fit theory analyses the proposed fit, between the abilities and needs of the individual to the required characteristics and tasks of the job (Ostroff & Judge, 2007; Thomas et al., 2004). If there is low fit or low congruence between a person and his or her job, research has found that motivation, satisfaction, performance decreases while stress increases (Thomas et al., 2004). If there is high fit, or high congruence, stress decreases and performance is increased. (H. Louise Moore (2012).
Heather Louise Moore, (2012); The purpose of this quantitative study was to better understanding the relationship of perceived ethical climate on the organizational commitment and job satisfaction of full-time faculty members in institutions of higher education. Four different regional universities, producing 594 responses, participated in this study. A modified version of 3 previously establish scales were used to measure each factor: 1) Three Component Model (TCM) of Employee Commitment created by Meyer and Allen (2004), 2) Revised Ethical Climate Questionnaire (RECQ) created by Victor and Cullen (1993), and 3) Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) created by Hackman and Oldham (1980).
The data analysis found significant differences in self-reported levels of organizational commitment and job satisfaction for full-time faculty members with regards to type of perceived ethical climate (i.e. egoism, benevolence, and principled). Results of this study also indicate that gender differences play a significant role in the self-reported level of organizational commitment. Females reported higher levels of organizational commitment than their male counterparts. There was no significant difference in the self-reported levels of job satisfaction based upon gender differences. Finally, the results of the study included a significant and positive correlation between the total organizational commitment scores and the total job satisfaction scores of respondents.
Patricia O’Donnellb, Carol Taylorc, Adrienne Farrard, Marion Danise, Christine Gradyf (2007); Nurses and social workers are fundamental to the delivery of quality health care across the continuum of care. As health care becomes increasingly complex, these providers encounter difficult ethical issues in patient care, perceive limited respect in their work, and are increasingly dissatisfied. However, the link between ethics-related work factors and job satisfaction and intent-to-leave one’s job has rarely been considered. In this paper, we describe how nurses and social workers in the US view the ethical climate in which they work, including the degree of ethics stress they feel, and the adequacy of organizational resources to address their ethical concerns. Controlling for socio-demographics, we examined the extent to which these factors affect nurses and social workers’ job satisfaction and their interest in leaving their current position. Data were from self-administered mail questionnaires of 1215 randomly selected nurses and social workers in four census regions of the US. Respondents reported feeling powerless (32.5%) and overwhelmed (34.7%) with ethical issues in the workplace and frustration (52.8%) and fatigue (40%) when they cannot resolve ethical issues. In multivariate models, a positive ethical climate and job satisfaction protected against respondents’ intentions to leave as did perceptions of adequate or extensive institutional support for dealing with ethical issues. Black nurses were 3.21 times more likely than white nurses to want to leave their position.
Satish P. (1996);This study examines the impact of ethical climate types (professionalism, caring, rules, instrumental, efficiency, and independence) on various facets of job satisfaction (pay, promotions, co-workers, supervisors, and work itself) in a large non-profit organization. Professionalism was the most reported and efficiency was the least reported ethical climate type in the organization. Among various facets of job satisfaction, respondents were most satisfied with their work and least satisfied with their pay. None of the climate types significantly influenced satisfaction with pay. A professional climate significantly influenced satisfaction with promotions, supervisors, and work. It also significantly influenced overall job satisfaction. Those respondents who believed that their organization had caring climate were more satisfied with their supervisors. An instrumental climate had a significant negative influence on overall job satisfaction and satisfaction with promotions, co-workers, and supervisors. Rules, efficiency, and independence climate types did not significantly affect any facets of job satisfaction.
Jay Prakash Mulki, Fernando Jaramillo & William B. Locander.(2013);This study builds on previous research to investigate the integrated effects of ethical climate and supervisory trust on salesperson’s job attitudes and intentions to quit. Responses from 344 salespeople who work for a global pharmaceutical company were used to examine the relationships among ethical climate, trust in supervisor, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention. Results indicate that ethical climate is a significant predictor of trust in supervisor, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Also, results show that trust in supervisor is an antecedent of job satisfaction and turnover intention. Implications for academicians and practitioners are discussed.
James B. DeConinck(2011);This study examined how an ethical work climate influences salespersons’ organizational identification,supervisory trust, organizational commitment, turnover intentions, and turnover. Using a sample of 393 sales people, the results found that facets of an ethical work climate are related directly to supervisory trust and organizational identification. One aspect of an ethical work climate, ethical norms, was related directly to turnover. These results indicate that an ethical work climate can directly affect salespersons’ job attitudes and outcomes. The results indicate the importance of measuring ethical work climate from a multidimensional perspective.
S.P. Deshpande, (1996); This study examines the ethical climate and ethical practices of successful managers (n=206 managers) of a large non-profit organization. The influence of different dimensions of ethical climate on perceived ethical practices of successful managers were also investigated. Results show that a majority of the respondents perceive successful managers as ethical. Compared to previous research, managers in our sample were less optimistic about the relationship between success and ethical behaviour. Those who believed that their organization had a “caring” climate perceived a strong positive link between success and ethical behaviour. Those who believed that their organization had an “instrumental” climate perceived a strong negative link between success and ethical behaviour.
The below table represents the gist of literature review. The table presents important research done for ethical climate, to assist this paper presented below in tabular form.
Job satisfaction review:
Review of outer about job satisfaction as Job satisfaction is a collection of numerous attitudes of individual toward various aspects of job with represent a general attitude (Gibson et al., 1994; Hellriegel and Slocum, 2004:Robbins, 2005; Boles, et al., 2007). Attitude may be positive (satisfaction) or negative (dissatisfaction) (Gibson et al., 1994). There are many researchers found Herzberg’s Two factor motivation Theory is related with employees’ job satisfaction when apply intrinsic motivator (Cesare and Sadri, 2003; Hellriegel and Slocum, 1998; Slocum and Helliegel, 2009).
According to Brikend Aziri,(2011);Different authors have different approaches towards defining job satisfaction. Some of the most commonly cited definitions on job satisfaction are analysed in the text that follows.
R.Baghaei (2011);He explain in his article Job satisfaction refers to a person feeling of satisfaction on the job, which acts as a motivation to work. It is not the self-satisfaction, happiness or self- contentment but the satisfaction on the job. Job satisfaction is an individual’s felling regarding his or her work. Job satisfaction has many dimensions. Commonly noted facets are satisfaction with the work itself, wages, and recognition, rapport with supervisors and co-workers, and chance for advancement. Each dimension contributes to an individual’s overall feeling of satisfaction with the job itself, but different people define the “job” differently. There are three important dimensions to job satisfaction:
Attitudes endure generally. But job satisfaction is dynamic; it can decline even more quickly than it developed. Managers, therefore, cannot establish the conditions leading to high satisfaction now and then neglect it, for employee needs may change suddenly. Managers need to pay attention to job satisfaction constantly. He explained a few definitions of job- satisfaction:
Brikend Aziri;(2011).Job satisfaction represents one of the most complex areas facing today’s managers when it comes to managing their employees. Many studies have demonstrated an unusually large impact on the job satisfaction on the motivation of workers, while the level of motivation has an impact on productivity, and hence also on performance of business organizations.
Andrew E. Clark(1997). By most objective standards, women’s jobs are worse than men’s, yet women report higher levels of job satisfaction than do men. This paper uses a recent large-scale British survey to document the extent of this gender differential for eight measures of job satisfaction and to evaluate the proposition that identical men and women in identical jobs should be equally satisfied. Neither the different jobs that men and women do, their different work values, nor sample selection account for the gender satisfaction differential. The paper’s proposed explanation appeals to the notion of relative well-being, especially relative to workers’ expectations. An identical man and woman with the same jobs and expectations would indeed report identical job satisfaction, but women’s expectations are argued to be lower than men’s. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that the gender satisfaction differential disappears for the young, the higher-educated, professionals and those in male-dominated workplaces, for all of whom there is less likely to be a gender difference in job expectations.
Adams, Gary A.; King, Lynda A.; King, Daniel W.(1996); A model of the relationship between work and family that incorporates variables from both the work-family conflict and social support literatures was developed and empirically tested. This model related bidirectional work-family conflict, family instrumental and emotional social support, and job and family involvement to job and life satisfaction. Data came from 163 workers who were living with at least 1 family member. Results suggested that relationships between work and family can have an important effect on job and life satisfaction and that the level of involvement the worker assigns to work and family roles is associated with this relationship. The results also suggested that the relationship between work and family can be simultaneously characterized by conflict and support. Higher levels of work interfering with family predicted lower levels of family emotional and instrumental support. Higher levels of family emotional and instrumental support were associated with lower levels of family interfering with work.
Joan L. Arches (1990); Two hundred and seventy five randomly selected social workers who were practicing in Massachusetts in 1988 were studied to better understand burnout and job satisfaction. The findings from hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that perceived lack of autonomy and the influence of the funding sources are major contributors to burnout, and perceived autonomy and bureaucratization are major contributors to job satisfaction. The findings challenge the assumption that bureaucracy is the most efficient form of organization and question the ideological and social control functions of organizations. A focus on the effects of the organizational structure as it contributes to burnout and job satisfaction is suggested for policy, practice, and professional decisions.
Gila M. Acker(1998); The study discussed in this article examined the relationship between the degree of involvement with clients with severe mental illness and social workers’ job satisfaction and burnout. A total of 128 social workers were administered a questionnaire that included three scales: an involvement scale, a job satisfaction measure, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Greater involvement was related significantly to higher levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Overall, results suggest that social workers are affected negatively by this type of work. The implications for the social work profession are discussed as well as the importance of social support systems at the work setting that will help social workers cope more effectively with stressful work situations.
Myung-Yong Um and Dianne F. Harrison (1994); The purpose of this study was to develop and empirically evaluate a model that delineated the processes whereby clinical social workers experience burnout and job dissatisfaction in their workplaces. First, on the basis of an array of relevant variables as stress-strain (burnout)-outcome (job dissatisfaction), the proposed model specified interrelationships among work stressors and burnout, the intervening factors between burnout and job satisfaction, and the final outcome variable, job satisfaction. Then the theoretical model was translated into an empirically testable model. Finally, the model was tested with a sample of 165 clinical social workers in Florida by using linear structural relation (LISREL) techniques. The results of analysis of components fit indicated that role conflict did intensify the amount of burnout and job dissatisfaction. Social support acted as an intervening and moderating factor between burnout and job dissatisfaction. Implications for social work practice are provided.
Celecte M.Brotheridge and Alicia A.Grandey (2002); Although it has often been presumed that jobs involving “people work” (e.g., nurses, service workers) are emotionally taxing (Maslach& Jackson, 1982), seldom is the emotional component of these jobs explicitly studied. The current study compared two perspectives of emotional labour as predictors of burnout beyond the effects of negative affectivity: job-focused emotional labour (work demands regarding emotion expression) and employee-focused emotional labour (regulation of feelings and emotional expression). Significant differences existed in the emotional demands reported by five occupational groupings. The use of surface-level emotional labour, or faking, predicted depersonalization beyond the work demands. Perceiving the demand to display positive emotions and using deep-level regulation were associated with a heightened sense of personal accomplishment, suggesting positive benefits to this aspect of work. These findings suggest new antecedents of employee burnout and clarify the emotional labour literature by comparing different conceptualizations of this concept.
T.S. Nanjundeswaraswamy, Dr Swamy D R(2012);A high quality of work life is essential for organizations to continue to attract and retain employees. QWL is a process in which organizations recognize their responsibility to develop job and working conditions that are excellent for the employee and organization. An effective leader influences the followers in a desired manner to achieve goals. It is evident from the literature different leadership styles may affect organization effectiveness and performance. The interventions of QWL will effectively utilize the employee potentials by ensuring great participation and involvement of workers.This paper focuses and analyses the literature findings which involves QWL and Leadership styles.
Srinika Jayaratne, and Wayne A. Chess (1984): A national study found similarities in levels of job satisfaction, burnout, and intent to change jobs among child welfare, community mental health, and family service workers, although the determinants varied by field of practice. The data suggest that a universal approach aimed at increasing job satisfaction and reducing burnout is likely to be of minimal value; interventions must be conducted within each setting and must attend to the idiosyncrasies of each group management and improve work environment.
Allen, Tammy D.; Herst, David E. L.; Bruck, Carly S.; Sutton, Martha (2000); A comprehensive review of the outcomes associated with work-to-family conflict was conducted and effect sizes were estimated. A typology was presented that grouped outcomes into 3 categories: work related, non-work related, and stress related. Issues concerning the measurement of work-family conflict were also discussed. The results demonstrate the widespread and serious consequences associated with work-to-family conflict. On the basis of the results of the review, an agenda for future research was provided.
Sherrill Evans, Peter Huxley, Claire Gately, Martin Webber, Alex Mears, Sarah Pajak, Jibby Medina, Tim Kendall, Cornelius Katona(2005): Background Previous research suggests that social workers experience high levels of stress and burnout but most remain committed to their work.
To examine the prevalence of stress and burnout, and job satisfaction among mental health social workers (MHSWs) and the factors responsible for this.
Method: A postal survey incorporating the General Health Questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Karasek Job Content Questionnaire and a job satisfaction measure was sent to 610 MHSWs in England and Wales.
Eligible respondents (n=237) reported high levels of stress and emotional exhaustion and low levels of job satisfaction; 111 (47%) showed significant symptomatology and distress, which is twice the level reported by similar surveys of psychiatrists. Feeling undervalued at work, excessive job demands, limited latitude in decision-making, and unhappiness about the place of MHSWs in modern services contributed to the poor job satisfaction and most aspects of burnout. Those who had approved social worker status had greater dissatisfaction.
Stress may exacerbate recruitment and retention problems. Employers must recognise the demands placed upon MHSWs and value their contribution to mental health services.
Shalini Sheel, Dr.Bhavana Khosla Sindhwani, Shashank Goel, Sunil Pathak (2012);: Accordingly, the increasing number of couple working aggravates the concern for employees quality of work life. With the growing women participation at work, it is necessary that males and females independently will need to share the both work and home responsibilities.
Therefore, quality of work experience rather than work parse gained attention and workplace wellness is indispensable in making work stress free to balance work and home.
K Siefert, S Jayaratne, WA Chess (1991);The findings of two consecutive surveys of job satisfaction and burnout in national samples of health care social workers are presented. Between 1979 and 1989, there were significant increases in the proportion of social workers employed in private versus public agencies, in quantitative workload, and in social workers’ perceptions of the challenges presented by their jobs. Role conflict and role ambiguity, lack of comfort, and dissatisfaction with financial rewards emerged as significant predictors of depersonalization and burnout. However, a significant increase in social workers’ feelings of personal accomplishment also occurred, and high challenge emerged as a significant predictor of sense of effectiveness.
Alfreda P. Iglehart(1990). Turnover in the social services is generally linked conceptually and empirically to stress, burnout, and other job-related attitudes. In addition, turnover is often associated with numerous negative organizational consequences. This article illuminates the benefits of turnover for clients and workers and describes agency-adaptive responses that minimize the disruptive effects of turnover. Recommendations are offered for distinguishing functional turnover from dysfunctional turnover.
The below table represents the gist of literature review.the table presents important research done for job satisfaction, to assist this paper presented below in tabular form.
Job satisfaction is the favourableness or unfavourableness with which employees view their work. Like motivation, it is affected by the environment. Different aspects of the job, such as pay, promotions, supervision, fringe benefits, one’s co-workers support,and excessive working hours are associated with levels of satisfaction (Watson et al,2003).
It is noticed from the available literature of all the studies that were discussed and are related to the large sectoroperations. The social worker is bound to have stress and hence a situation of 100% job satisfaction would only arise when he or she is motivated to be a contributing part of society. By contributing part we mean that they are socially inclined and obliged to do good to society. To enhance the same, the study and understanding reveals that appreciation and honest reward & award schemes by employer and respective governments are a major factor.
We would conclude by stating that job satisfaction of a social worker is directly proportional to his or hers social obligation. More inclined towards betterment of society, higher the involvement of the social worker and better job satisfaction.
Dr. Shivappa R.
Associate Professor & Chairman, Department of Studies in Social Work, University of Mysore
PhD Scholar, University of Mysore