Just as heterosexuality is considered as a norm in the society homosexual relations and homosexuality are looked as repulsive and abnormal. Sexual minority as a community is marginalized, excluded and deprived from the wider links to main stream community life due to their sexuality. Stigmatization around feminization produces a range of problems from verbal abuses to threats to their life. Stigma, denial and violence push them to severe health problems especially mental health problems. From their childhood to old age they undergo lots of crisis. They are forced to go away from their family at younger age. It is difficult to live in a stigmatized society without family support. This produces enormous psychological consequences such as stress, depression, anxiety, loneliness, self-destructive behavior. Suicidal tendency is very common among sexuality minority. Majority of them have attempted for suicide at least once in their lifetime. Since our society is more homophobic and homosexuality is considered as abnormal, these mental health issues are ignored. This article attempts to understand the problem of suicide among the homosexuals.
KEY WORDS: sexuality, homosexual, homophobia, mental health, violence, stress
Abstract & Suggestion :
Social Phobia also known as Social Anxiety can often inhibit a person to exhibit their full potential. Often it may be a result of the sub-culture within an ethnic group or imposed on a certain gender example: females or may be a part of their personality pattern. While social phobia itself is not life threatening but do limit the growth or realizing the self potential. It often affects self esteem or productivity of a person. The author has drawn materials from several sources to make it more presentable to all groups starting from – what is social phobia to how to overcome.
Prof Shankar Pathak, Retired Professor Of Social Work, Department Of Social Work, Delhi University, Delhi.
He was also Director, Field Work for four years and Founder -Director of Child Guidance Center- a Field Action Project
Hemalatha: How important are Field Action Projects (FAPs) to become a criterion for quality assessment of education in social work
Prof, Pathak: It is quite a difficult question. Without field work there cannot be social work education. If you search the meaning for ‘Social’ in any Dictionary, you may find various words, especially you will get the word ‘Society’. In its widest sense ‘anything that you do in society can be considered as social, However, there is a restricted meaning which is used when we refer to social work. Coming to FAPs, it may become necessary if there are no good agencies in an adequate number to place and train students. Good agencies may also not be available to students for field work placement for a variety of reasons. FAPs become necessary then.
Dr.H.M. Marulasiddaiah, Retired Professor of Social Work, Bangalore University
Dr. Hemalatha: NAAC (National Assessment and Accreditation Council)considers Field Action Project’s (FAPs) as a criterion for assessment of institutions of social work, your reaction to this
Prof HMM: I whole heartedly welcome the criterion such as this as part of assessing social work institutions. Social work department cannot claim to be professional department without their own labs. This is akin to medical colleges without hospital facilities. Every school must have FAPs one urban and one rural.
Professional values refer to the basic principles which lead the professionals in right and meaningful direction. Mental Health Professionals (MHP) need to understand the importance of professional values and code of ethics. Realizing the professional values and ethics will strengthen the one’s skills and competence. World Health Organisation has developed a set of principles and under these principles, guidelines have been formulated. In this paper, authors have tried to bring relation between the social work values and guidelines given by WHO.
Key words: Social work values, Mental Health, Rights.
Rehabilitation is an important component of health. Psycho social rehabilitation refers to the rehabilitation of chronic mentally ill patients. Psychosocial rehabilitation (PSR) involves three components of assessment of disability, medical intervention and rehabilitation services in different care settings for the mentally ill. The process of psycho social rehabilitation involves four stages namely assessment, planning, intervention and evaluation. Rehabilitation of mentally ill is undertaken by both governmental and non governmental agencies. Social workers have a crucial role to play in the psycho social rehabilitation of mentally ill.
Key words: Psycho social rehabilitation; Process of rehabilitation; Role of social workers in PSR.
Mental illnesses when become chronic, creates more burden to the family members. Other than medical treatment, the mentally ill persons require multiple therapeutic approaches to bring them back to normal functionality through rehabilitation activities. Rehabilitation services are provided in different settings, viz., half-way-homes, day-care centers and vocational rehabilitation centres. This article highlights the need of rehabilitation for the mentally ill persons and its importance in making the person self dependent; and need of the trained persons in this field.
Key words: Mental illness, rehabilitation, vocational rehabilitation, half-way-homes, Day-care center.
Sex is the core of whole human society. When sexuality is silenced and considered as too much a private affair, the complex forms or diversities of sexualities are ignored. Homosexuals are stigmatized and discriminated in the society. Stigma, internalized homophobia, discrimination, lack of family support makes them undergo a plethora of psychological problems. Health consequences vary from depression, heightened levels of anxiety to low self-esteem. There are evidences to show that homosexuals are more at the risk of experiencing poor mental health services than other men due to hate crimes, rejection, discrimination and internalized homophobia. The combination of internalized homophobia and chronic stress are likely to result in mental health problems.
Health, today, cannot be conceived without including the dimension of spirituality in it. Today suicides, stress, anxiety, alienation, purposelessness and extreme levels of aspirations have become the style of life. The relationship between spirituality and various dimensions of health and quality of life among elderly has been extensively examined during the past decade. Empirical evidence is available in India and other countries to show a direct relation between spirituality, stress and quality of life. Comprehensive research evidence shows that spiritual beliefs and practices help many physical and mental illness, reducing both symptom severity and relapse rate, speeding up and enhancing recovery, as well as rendering distress and disability easier to endure. Spiritual care is a way of helping older people in their search for hope and meaning, especially as they face issues of grief, loss and uncertainty. The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive study was to explore the influence of spirituality in reducing the level of stress and improving the quality of wellbeing among the elderly practising spirituality.
Keywords: Elderly, Stress, Wellbeing, Spirituality
Women’s health is inextricably linked to their status in society. It benefits from equality, and suffers from discrimination (WHO, 1996). Women’s family roles involving care of children and ill, disabled, or elderly relatives are more likely to intrude upon their paid employment mentally or in actuality. Women are more likely to ‘‘have two simultaneous roles, whereas men are allowed to have sequential roles’’ generally deferring ‘‘family roles to the evening after work’’ (Barnett & Rivers, 1996). Though some women may suffer from role strain, conflict, or overload, research also shows that women who combine multiple roles are physically and emotionally among the healthiest in contrast to those who do one role exclusively [Nieva, 1985 , Crosby, 1991) ].‘Women are especially stressed by situations that are beyond their control and by those in which they perceive themselves to be responsible for the well-being of others failure causes a marked lowering of self-esteem’’ (Bernstein & Lenhart, 1993). The problems are compounded by the reduced availability of competent caregivers due to greater opportunity for women to obtain more lucrative non-traditional employment outside the domestic sphere.
The research on ‘leisure’ has underscored its importance in the lives of both men and women alike. It is a proven fact that leisure acts as an inalienable factor and resource that contributes to mental health of individuals. But research also indicates that women’s leisure in general and that of the working women in particular is constrained. With a sharp rise in women entering the organized employment sectors, they have been experiencing role overload and strain. These are likely to affect their mental health, unless they manage some space for their leisure.
Key words: Working Women, Leisure, Mental Health.
Bharat Development Society (BDS), a non-profit and non-governmental organization (NGO) was established in 1980. The founder-secretary was a school teacher and he had ambition to explore his potentials in entrepreneurship in the field of education. The NGO, as Sandip knew later, had been created to generate funds to feed his (secretary) ambition. Hence, he formed the governing body by including his own family members, relatives and friends, with an intention that he would have an authoritarian control over the affairs of the NGO. Everything was going on the way as he wanted or desired. Even after more than a decade of its existence there was no ‘personnel policy’ or ‘appropriate remuneration policy’ in the organization. It was not exactly known to others about what would be the execution mechanism of a particular activity or programme. Things were just moving on and it had projects in the fields of ‘elimination of child labour’, ‘drug deaddiction centre ‘and ‘HIV/AIDS prevention programme’. Also it had one dysfunctional Rural Development Unit (RDU) at the native village of founder-secretary.
Comparing to any other communites in India Tribal communities faces large level disparity in many fields. The socio-economic conditions, heath related aspects and educational attainment are very low in the tribal areas even though they are not an ignorable group in India. According to the recent census report 2001, 8% of the total population in India is tribes. Giving definitions to the tribe is complex task. As each of tribe in different states have unique features, it is difficult to give a common definition.
A Human rights approach to health had its beginning in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Perhaps due to 'gender blindness' the fact that women suffer from several human rights violations because of their societal and sexual roles was not recognized for several decades. In the eighties, improving reproductive rights gained recognition as a viable strategy with the recognition of women's reproductive rights as human rights.
Corporate is the most common form of business organization. The use of information technology, organizational restructuring, changes in work time and working schedules have radically transformed the nature of work among the employees of corporate. The corporate world itself is diversifying, with an increase of the employees from all part of the world represents different culture, religion, custom and traditions. The present paper explains the importance of counselling in the corporate by focusing on issues of recruitment, training, performance appraisal, leadership, motivation, working conditions. The paper also tries to highlight the importance and scope of counselling in handling the human resource in an organization.
Keywords: Corporate, Counselling, People Management, Employee Assistance Programmes (EAPs)
Daniel Keeran, MSW, has been a professional counsellor and therapist for over 30 years. He has provided counselling and training to thousands of professionals and the public through his private practice and leading groups for healing grief in hospital settings. To view the best-selling book "Effective Counseling Skills" found in many academic and public libraries, visit http://www.amazon.com/Effective-Counseling-Skills-therapeutic-statements/dp/1442177993 This article is a taste of what you will learn in the Mental Health Counsellor Training Course. To register go to www.collegemhc.com
Excerpt from the book- SOCIAL WORK & SOCIAL WELFARE. NIRUTA PUBLICATIONS
Rama Bai’s father, Anant Shastri Dongre, a chitpavan Brahmin from a village near Karkala in Karnataka, had a traditional education in Sanskrit and was a great scholar. He was at Poona during the last years of Peshwa rule, Perhaps employed by the Peshwa. After the end of Peshwa rule he returned to his native village, with a conviction that women have a right to study Sanskrit and thus becomes a non conformist, even considered as a rebel by the orthodox Brahmin community. He sets up an ashram school for girls in a forest near by like the old Gurukul providing food, shelter and education to about 25 girls including some shudra girls. He faced strong opposition and even the threat of excommunication, but manages to escape it, proving in a debate that his work was not against the shastras. Due to adverse economic circumstances including a major famine, he sets out with his family - his wife, a son and a daughter Rama, a baby in arms barely a few months old, on a long tour of the country by foot, travelling first to Kashmir in the north and later to Calcutta in the east, but passes away on the way to Calcutta.
A TASK FOR SOCIAL WORK PROFESSION
Can Social Work profession help India to help herself to save her cultural heritage?
Social work as a systematic profession is doing wonders in today’s profit oriented world. Social work profession is a paid profession and not a free service, it helps the people help themselves. This “empowerment approach,” of social work profession has yielded and is yielding good results in all walks of life, such as Health care, Crime control, Self employment, Access to public benefits, Protection of women, and Victims of trafficking, Safeguarding children and orphan, Elderly immigrants, Old age people, Tribal, Victims of disasters and Juveniles, etc. The efforts of Social work profession are bringing social transformation in the society. It has proved to be very good intervention in bringing Social inclusion and in reducing Social exclusion.
To counter declining emotional health of humanity, the stigma attached to counseling needs to be removed and an awareness is to be created about the need and availability of help.
Statistics show that the rate of psychological disturbances leading to suicide, homicide, marital breakdown, alcoholism, drug abuse, etc. is increasing at an alarming rate all over the world. It would seem that as the material comforts of life are increasing due to the scientific explosion, mental health is deteriorating. Mental health is achieved when man is completely psychologically mature or self-actualised, and psychological disturbances are nothing but a failure of such development.
Abstract: Elder neglect is a serious problem, however it is not a priority in the public health domain. This paper highlights the neglect the elderly experience slum demolitions which requires a structural analysis of various forces, the systems, structures and mechanisms that has a direct impact on their health and well being. It illustrates through a slum in an eastern suburb of Mumbai how elders on an average face more and some unique challenges besides lower incomes and higher health care costs, the problems they face in times of slum demolitions and the impact of reduced community support for the elderly. Qualitative data from a doctoral thesis , further explicates the experiences of elders residing in an urban slum who are forced to cope in the midst of inadequate social support and social isolation. On a concluding note, the author discusses how with the diminishing family's role as the major caregiver there is a need to evolve counselling services as a major component within the ambit for protection of the rights of the elderly.
Keywords: violence, demolitions, elderly neglect and counselling needs.
The Foundation Lecture ‘Delivered’ at the J S S Department of Social Work, Mysore
*This piece of writing, perhaps, is one of the last writings of Dr. P.T.Thomas, a well-established social work educator and a very bold thinker of his times. Dr. Thomas, whom a adored for his scholarship and sharp intellect, had accepted our invitation to deliver the first foundation lecture at the J.S.S. Post-Graduate Deptt. of Social Work, Mysore (Established in 2001), when I was the director of that Deptt. during 2002-2003. Unfortunately due to his Illhealth, which did not allow him to travel from Bangalore to Mysore, we had to post-pone the programme which we could not organize at all. It is sad we lost that precious Social Work Personality recently at his ripe age of 90 in April 2012. However, we are fortunate in publishing, his undelivered lecture here posthumously. We pray for his soul to have heavenly bliss.
20, May 2012
A qualitative inquiry was carried out on thirty respondents who had adolescent children to understand the life cycle tasks of families with adolescents. It was seen that most of the parents of adolescents have to undergo changes in relationships with spouse and children and had to make various adjustments in their lives in order to accommodate the needs of adolescents. This article also looks at the ways in which parents handle the stress of having a teenage child at home and briefly discusses the implication for parental counselling.
Seventh Evelyn Hursey and Khwaja Gulam-us Saiyidain Memorial Lecture
Delivered at Delhi School of Social Work in-1985
This is an introductory report of an ecological movement going on in the Western Ghat region of Karnataka. An attempt is made to present the movement in a historical context. This report draws upon the experience of local people.
The Western Ghat mountain range from Gujarat to Kerala plays a crucial role in maintaining the environmental stability of the Deccan plateau. Important rivers like Krishna, Bhima, Cauvery and Tungabhadra originate from the thick forests of Western Ghats. The whole Western Ghat belt forms the catchment area of important rivers of South India. The forests of this region are known as tropical forests, which bring rain by intercepting monsoon winds. Amidst the green hills, there are small patches of cultivable land. The area is famous for black-pepper, cardamom, arecanut (Supari), coffee and banana. The forests have proved to be the perennial source of water to the region and have also made possible continuous supply of green manure. The total self-reliant life style of people has thus remained integrated with nature
Thousands of malnourished children suffer in silence. And no one cares
Something is not always better than nothing. Hungry little ones would rather sleep on an empty stomach than gulp down inedible ‘packet food’.
The last time Mahadevi, 3, braved a mouthful of the disable bath (a rice dish) distributed at the anganvadi In Appanadodi, 25km from Raichur, Karnataka, she cried all night. “She had a terrible stomach upset,” says her mother, Narasamma.
The objective of this study is to examine how the men are helping their wives in the day-to-day domestic activities. In this context an attempt is made to explain how far the men belonging to dual earning families are involved in domestic responsibilities.
India is a culturally and linguistically diverse country where people of many religions, castes, creeds and tribes live together. But, they share some common beliefs, values and norms that help them identify themselves as members of that society. Hofstede (2001) labelled India as a collectivist society where people from birth onwards are integrated into strong, interrelated groups, which continue to protect themselves throughout their lifetime. Collectivist values like interdependence; family integrity, security, obedience and traditional values are given importance by the people of collectivist culture.
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