About 50 percent of total population constitutes women, but women workers constitute only 16 percent, 80 percent remain engaged in unorganized sectors. The entrepreneurial world is still a male dominated one. According to the United Nations Human Development Report (2002) in India women work 457 minutes per day and men391. The type of activities men and women do explains why women work more time than men but their estimated income is lower. Women spend 65% of their time in non-market activities, and men spend 92% of their time in market activities. However, the number of women entrepreneurs is rising rapidly and many are creating Substantial businesses Women in advanced nations are recognized and are more prominent in the business field. But the Indian women entrepreneurs are facing some major constraints. Women are expected to perform the domestic and reproductive tasks like cooking, cleaning, collection of fuel wood and water, care for the animals, child bearing and rearing. This type of mentality imposes restrictions on their mobility and on their contacts with the outside world, restrains their access to jobs and their social and political participation in the society. They are dependent on men, economically, socially and politically, and have limited direct independent access to resources.
‘Women Entrepreneur ‘is a person who accepts challenging role to meet her personal needs and become economically self-sufficient. Entrepreneurship among rural women is a recent phenomenon.
Rural Women entrepreneurs may be defined as a woman or group of women, who initiate, organize and run a business enterprise in villages or sub-urban areas. According to Schumpeter women who innovate, imitate or adopt a business activity are called “women entrepreneurs”.
Need and importance
Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, realizing the pathetic situation of women, stated, ¯in order to awaken people, it is the woman who has to be awakened. Once she is on the move, the household moves, the village moves, the country moves, and thus, we build the India of tomorrow. As Indian women in no way inferior to men in all walk of life and they are as good as men in entrepreneurial skills, it is imperative to exploit the potential of Indian women. Women’s participation in trade, industry and commerce requires entrepreneurship. It is observed that entrepreneurial traits are still poor mainly because of the problems associated with their traditional role in the family. In rural areas, women are helping men in agriculture and agri-business industries. With little training and support they can prove better results in the business activities. Setting up of small business units generates income to the family and it contributes to the national economy through commercial activities and employment generation. Women in rural area engaged in businesses like bakery, dairy, poultry, milk-parlor, beauty parlor, general stores and small spare parts, flower vending etc. Many of the traditional occupations open to women are mainly based on caste, creed and the nature of self-employment is based on the standard of living. At present, women are generating employment for themselves in unorganized sectors and other category of women provides employment for others.
Contribution of the study
Like any other investigations that lead to policy initiatives, the present study explores the major motivating factors and barriers to rural women to become an entrepreneur in Indian context. Understanding the typical problems of the rural women folk as an entrepreneur paves the way for nurturing the occupation through needful support and required policy from the government. Removing the barriers to the success of rural women entrepreneurs contribute to a greater extent to align themselves in the right direction. Moreover, rural entrepreneurship is relatively less researched. This study contributes to the literature on this area in the Indian context.
Statement of the problem
Many research studies prove that women empowerment and financial self sufficiency is achieved through entrepreneurial activities. Many NGOs have been training women in this direction. Plenty of women have successful in the field of business and achieved fame globally. Generally, women in the urban areas have been engaging in trade and business activities, at least, in small scale. As the concept of urbanization of rural is the order of the day, government focusing on development infrastructure at the gross route level, And also, encouraging rural women to set up business or self-employment activities. Women in the rural areas are gradually coming forward to start up enterprises through which enhancing their level of socio-economic status. Because of its success in many cases, rural entrepreneurship has been gaining popularity. Although women entrepreneurs are being inspired by the success stories, there are instances of obstacles to it. Hence, studying the triggers and barriers to rural women entrepreneurship is a concern.
Literature study reveals many issues of rural women entrepreneurs. No research work has focused on the multi-dimensional issues of the research topic. Problems of rural women entrepreneurship are multi-faceted. Triggers and barriers of rural entrepreneurship of different types of businesses on socio-economic angle is the research gap that we found out. Hence we proceed to understand the triggers and barriers of rural women entrepreneurs.
The purpose of the paper is to Study of triggers and barriers of rural women entrepreneurs. Therefore we set the following objectives for the study
For the study we set the following hypothesis:
The present study is empirical and descriptive in nature based on both primary and secondary data. Secondary data has been collected from journals, working papers, newspapers, thesis, books, and reports published on the relevant topic. Simple random sampling and systematic sampling method was followed for this study.
Primary data consists of responses collected from women entrepreneurs in rural areas, running different types of businesses. In a structured interview, the schedule was prepared, and the same questions were posed to all the respondents in the same order. Each question was asked in the same way in each interview, for the purpose of measurement of reliability. In the present study, Likert’s summated scale was used at five points.
Data was validated by applying Cronbach’s alpha method.
The Sampling frame is the women entrepreneurs in rural areas. 10 villages and sub-urban towns, of population not more than 10000, were considered for data collection. In each area women entrepreneurs were met. Respondents not participated were ignored from the list. Total sample of 280 respondents were finally considered for analysis.
Locale of the study:
Villages selected from Hassan and Mysore District where we found many women business enterprises of different types.
Period of the study
The study has been undertaken from October 2012 to July 2013
Scope of the study:
The study includes women entrepreneurs who are engaged in small businesses of different types in rural areas. The study explores the triggers and barriers of rural women entrepreneurs in general. Includes those run their businesses in rural areas itself and those who move to urban areas regularly for business. Triggers we mean the driving force behind choosing entrepreneurship and barriers address the typical problems of women entrepreneurs in general and rural women in particular.
Tools of Analysis
Data so obtained was analyzed by using SPSS version 16.0. Percentage, mean, Factor analysis and ANOVA were applied for data analysis, after testing the reliability of the data.
Results and Analysis
The study of socio-economic background of respondents was relevant before we go for various testing. Respondents were classified on the basis of age, education, family background, and annual income. Cross tabulation of nature of business and 10 villages shows the various types of business in each village. Of the total respondents, 32 members family background is farm labour, a major chunk of 132 members from agriculture background, 79 members have business background basically from chettiars, muslims, marvaris community, a small percent are of other community members, whereas 37 members running their business on the basis of traditional caste based occupation, particularly broomstick vendors, flower vendors and beauty-parlors
15 percent of respondents are educated below 7th standard, 45.4 percent are up to 10th standard, and 39 percent are above 10th standard. 79 percent of women are married, 17.9 percent are unmarried and 2.5 percent are widows. In the income category, 47.5 percent members are earning income up to Rs 40000 and 27 percent of the respondents are earning income only up to 20000 annually, where as 24.6 percent of the respondents earn over Rs 40000 annually. It is interesting to note, that 103 respondents who are married and running a business are from agriculture background and 19 members’ parents are farm labours. 74 entrepreneurs have business background.
Table 2 below indicates the number of respondents classified according to the nature of business in their respective villages. It is evident from the analysis that more than 30 women (10 percent) are engaged in selling flower, bangles, vegetable and a major chunk of the respondents are running general store or provision store consisting of provisions and goods for daily needs of the people in the locality. 20-30 members are milk sellers, fruit sellers, tailoring service, and running small canteen or bakery. 10- 20 members are engaged in spare parts trading, beauty-parlor and selling ropes and broomsticks produced by them and only 9 members are running small beuty-parlours.
To understand the driving force behind the rural women entrepreneurs, 16 statements were asked and recorded as per their priority. Factor analysis was applied to reduce the statements into factors. Initially, KMO and Bartlett’s Test of Sampling adequacy (Table 3) was tested.
Bartlett’s test of sphericity was significant, supporting the factorability of the correlation matrix and the associated significance level was extremely small (0.000). A high value which is above 0.5 to 1.0 generally indicates that a factor analysis may be useful with the data. As here KMO value is 0.656 on triggers perceived is more than 0.50, we found that the results of factor analysis are useful with the present data.
For factor extraction, principal component method was used, under the restriction that the Eigen value of each generated factor was more than one. A factor analysis was conducted to develop constructs that will help to evaluate factors that are identified as motivational force. Five factors were generated, which explained 62.15 percent of the variance with the loss of only 37.85 percent of information. The extracted factors were then rotated using variance maximizing method (Varimax). These rotated factors with their variable constituents and factor loadings are given in Table 4. Of the Five factors identified Opportunities is the first factor emerged as an important component with the highest factor scoring and the total variance of 26.092 percent, the second factor is Entrepreneurial Attitude with the total variance of 12.918 percent, then follow Career objective, Empowerment goal and Individual Talent. It is evident from the analysis, that rural women, if an opportunity available, can start and run businesses competitively and achieve her socio-economic self-sufficiency.
Testing of Hypothesis 1
Our null hypothesis (H01) is that there is no significant difference among the respondents as regards the motivational factors. We applied ONE-WAY ANOVA for the test.
The table (5) shows that F statistics equals 1.991 with a corresponding P-value 0.013. Since P-value is greater than 0.05 there is no enough evidence to reject the null hypothesis and infer that there is no significant differences in the mean perception of respondents. F statistics is less than the table value at 10 percent level of significance.
The third objective of the study is to understand the barriers or problems being faced by rural women entrepreneurs. For this purpose, again we applied Factor analysis. Reliability test was conducted for all 17 factors. The overall value of Cronbach’s Alpha is 0.833 as shown below. The value more than 0.60 which is considered to be reliable and it shows the homogeneity of items.
Bartlett’s test of sphericity was significant, supporting the factorability of the correlation matrix and the associated significance level was extremely small (0.000).As here KMO value is 0.0.852 on triggers perceived is more than 0.50, we found that the results of factor analysis are useful with the present data.
Three factors were generated, which explained 80.05 percent of the variance with the loss of only 19.05 percent of information. The extracted factors were then rotated using variance maximizing method (Varimax). These rotated factors with their variable constituents and factor loadings are given in Table 8. Of the Three factors identified Economic Barriers is the first factor emerged as an important component with the highest factor scoring and the total variance of 35.024 percent, the second factor is psychological Barriers with the total variance of 26.970 percent, and the third factor is Social problems with total variance of 12.312 percent. It is evident from the analysis, that rural women, if an opportunity available, can start and run businesses competitively and achieve her socio-economic self-sufficiency. It is evident from the table that of the responses expressed, lack of family support is the main Sociological barrier. Difficulty in Relationship with suppliers, customers and others is the major psychological barrier. It is very pertinent from the analysis that most of the rural women are facing Economic problems and lack of technical and managerial skill and knowledge.
Testing of Hypothesis 2
Our second null hypothesis (H02) states that there is no significant difference in the mean perception of respondents as far as barriers are concerned. ONE-WAY ANOVA (Table 9) was calculated for this test. F statistics shown in the table equals 4.973 with a corresponding P-value 0.00 which is less than 0.05. Hence, we reject the null hypothesis and can be inferred that there is a significant difference between the mean perceptions of respondents as far as problems are concerned.
Women in rural area in particular are hard working people. They are bold and prefer to be self reliant. Most of them are frustrated with the daily wages that is insufficient to lead life and get their children educated, have comfortable house, and to have handsome income. Some of them are running business as a continuation to their parents or as a supportive entrepreneur. Rural women try to find new avenue in which they can continue their occupation perpetually. From the analysis it is found that women are diverging from agricultural activities and find new opportunities to earn income. They take up challenging venture too. Factor analysis revealed that most of them have intention to utilize their talent and educational background, perhaps they have Business education or some of them are engineering graduates traditionally struck in the villages on account of the typical social constraints where in the family members do not allow them to work outside as per their qualification. In this background rural entrepreneurship could be an alternative forum to exhibit and encash their skills. And also increasing needs of rural population and varied goods and services they desire to buy and consume in villages not less than urban population. Bakery, canteen, small hotels, beauty parlors, flower decoration for different occasions, milk, butter, ghee, cheese , tender coconut, fancy stores are found generally in rural areas now-a-days.
Rural entrepreneurship leads to increased business activities and income, and economic empowerment of women. Despite the opportunity, the driving spirit, self-motivation rural women entrepreneurs lack family support. This can be attributed to nuclear family trend and migration of educated youth towards cities. It is also found that the dual role of women is another important problem since she has to manage traditional functions of family and business. Of the problems they have been facing, economic problems such as low managerial talent, lack of finance, lack of supply of goods or material at reasonable price, lack of training and severe competition from their male counterpart.
To be successful, women entrepreneurs should have self-confidence, managerial skills, and technical and legal guidance, economic support in time. Therefore, in addition to the existing schemes of the government, NGOs and government together design a plan of action to make rural women more active, more positive in their attitude, instill confidence through financial and legal support. MAHILA BANK, MAHILA MARKET, Preference to buy products of women home industry, reservation to women in SEZ and Industrial sites, loans at cheaper rate of interest etc could stabilize the inspiration of rural women entrepreneurs. To overcome sociological barriers, government has to educate through bulletins, news and advertisements to persuade them to not to bother about silly outlook of society. The attitude of male and the society towards women has been gradually becoming healthy. Rural women shall develop positive attitude and take out their inferiority from their mind.
Limations and Scope for Further Research
The present study has a limited scope of only few villages of two districts and the sample size may not replicate and results may not be generalized. As the problems differ from business to business and locality and personal traits, the perception expressed are not applicable to different business and different people. The major occupation in rural area is agriculture. Naturally we cannot expect the qualities of typical business person. As the size of business is generally small, small is beautiful only when it is managed by trained entrepreneur. Therefore, the study did not focus the problems on the basis of nature of business. This is due to time and resource constraint. Thus, further study can be extended to examination of motivations and barriers with respect to a specific type of business either as a case study or in general.
After review of available literature, we undertook a study of trigger and problems of rural women entrepreneurs by collecting responses through interview schedule. Both motivational factors and problems of rural women entrepreneurship were analyzed through factor analysis and data was reduced to construct important factor. The hypothesis test proves that there is no difference in the perception about triggers. However, hypothesis test proved that there is no common opinion about the problems. Therefore, it is understood that problems of one entrepreneur may not be the same for other. It depends on the nature of business and other variables. However, it is suggested that the government financial and educational support is necessary and advised to mould and develop an entrepreneurial attitude positively.
Dr. P. Paramashivaiah
Professor & Dean, DOS & Research in Commerce, Tumkur University, Tumkur- 572 103. KARNATAKA, INDIA.
Dr. R. Shashidar
Assistant Professor, DOS & Research in Business Administration, Tumkur University, Tumkur- 572 103. KARNATAKA, INDIA.
Assistant Professor & Research Scholar, Govt. First Grade College, Srirangapattana, Mandya District.
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